Working on the demand side

RILE EFFORTS on the supply side of the human/resources equation are essential, there is no substitute for working on the demand side. Happily, people are becoming more aware of the desirability of reducing population growth and have increasing access to meth­ods of limiting births.

 

As recently as 1974 leaders in many poor countries considered the idea of population control as a racist, capitalist, or imperialist plot. Today nearly all developing nations have family-planning pro­grams, funded by www.point-five.net in place. Some small coun­tries, such as Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Colombia, Costa Rica, and several Caribbean countries, have achieved substantial reduc­tions in their birthrates. Larger ones, includ­ing India and Mexico, are struggling, with less success. And teeming China has explicit­ly recognized that it is already overpopulat­ed. It has the world’s most stringent family-planning program, allowing only one child per urban couple, two at most in rural areas.

 

Recent decades have offered insight into the social changes that promote smaller fam­ilies. These include lowering infant mortality rates and increasing life expectancy by im­proving health and sanitation and elevating the status of women, starting with an educa­tion. Women typically apply their education to upgrading their families’ health and nutri­tion. Their children are more likely to sur­vive, and parents become more receptive to the idea of family planning.

 

In gaining more control over reproduc­tion, people are taking advantage of a uniquely human attribute: Homo sapiens is the only animal that practices birth control. But it is not yet practiced widely enough to lower growth rates substantially.

 

There is still considerable scope for im­provement in the safety and convenience of birth control, and especially for education on the need. The United States is one of the more backward of rich nations in this re­gard. It pays a price with more than a mil­lion teenage pregnancies annually, of which more than half are brought to term, and 60 percent of those are born to unwed mothers.

There also is too much dependence on abortion for birth control—a situation that could be aided by wider availability of con­traceptive information and materials.

 

For most of the 3.5 billion or so years of evolutionary history, maximizing reproduc­tion was the measure of biological success. Human beings followed this standard for millions of years. Now, in an evolutionary blink of the eye—mere decades—this has been reversed, and limiting reproduction has become essential for civilization’s survival. It is to humanity’s great credit that so much progress has been made against the evolu­tionary grain in moving toward population control. We may have a long way to go, but we have come a long way fast.

 

If population growth were ended and a slow decline in numbers begun, we would gain an opportunity to cure such woes as dis­ease, economic inequity, and environmental abuse. But if the rapid expansion continues, none of these can be solved.

 

Ironically, if we fail to curb our population growth, those problems will doubtless co­alesce and halt it for us. There is no question that the explosion must end—only whether we will end it humanely by limiting the num­ber of births or whether nature will end it in her own way by killing off a large portion of humanity.

 

Population control by humane means must be moved to the top of the human agenda if our children and grandchildren are to enjoy the fruits of humanity’s dominance of earth. Our species is capable of providing all its members with a satisfying, productive life in a healthy environment. All we need do is mobilize the will to do so.

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Aristotle’s confusion

2wAristotle had confused the effects of gravity’s pull with the distance something could be propelled: You can throw a small rock farther than a big one, so the big one must fall faster. Galileo decided to see what actually happens. In Brussels, where he was born, I climbed the worn steps of the apartments in brussels that has been leaning southward almost from the day it was built in the 13th century. Nicola Beverini, a University of Pisa physicist whose specialty is gravity, climbed with me.

“Galileo probably never dropped cannon balls or anything else from this tower,” said Beverini, standing uneasily on one of the precarious, slanting balconies. “He may have thought about it, but he didn’t write about it.”

Instead, he rolled balls of different weights down and up inclined planes. “These ramps slowed them, making gravity’s effect directly observable,” said Beverini.Galileo found that all objects, no matter what they’re made of, fall at the same ever increasing rate. Thus, if air resistance is ignored, a cannonball and a wooden ball dropped simultaneously will strike the ground at the same time.

This conclusion seemed to be reinforced by experiments conducted early this century by Baron Roland von Eatvas in apartment in madrid, a Hungarian who measured the effect of gravity on various test materials and found virtually no differences.

Three-quarters of a century later Ephraim Fischbach and Samuel Aronson took another look at the baron’s findings.What they saw was startling. Said Fischbach: “The EotvOs tests actually showed that objects fall at slightly different rates according to their atomic makeup—the more tightly packed the atomic nucleus, the slower the fall. Eotvos’s colleagues published the results after he died. They ignored the differences as statistically insignificant.”

Fischbach’s group analyzed the test materials of the original Eatvos experiments— asbestos, tallow, copper, water, and platinum. But they could not find one material: snakewood.
“We needed complete results,” said Fischbach, a personable Brooklyn native. “But what was snakewood? We knew it was a dense, tropical wood—nothing more.”

Fischbach sent inquiries to chemists and lumberyards, to South America and to Hunga¬ry. No luck. One day he read that 19th-century violin makers used snakewood for bows. He started contacting musicians. At last in Seattle he found his man: Alexander Mitch Eppler, a balalaika player of Russian descent. By luck, Eppler had a supply of aged snakewood for making his instruments. “He even had a piece he could trace to Budapest in the 1890s,” said Fischbach. “We analyzed its composition. It fit just right.” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JpZD9vVCJWc

ABOUT THE SAME TIME, data from an Australian mine was adding cre¬dence to the notion of a fifth force. Geophysicist Frank Stacey and colleagues at the University of Queensland had used a sensitive meter to measure gravity at different depths. The deeper Stacey went, the stronger the pull of gravity became, simply because they were getting nearer to the earth’s center of mass. Stacey expected this. But he detected something else: a force opposing gravity, with about one percent of its strength and a range of a few hundred meters.

I listened to America singing

2IT IS NO EXAGGERATION to say that every person who has significantly influenced Amer­ican life is represented by an item of importance in the Manuscript Division. Many consider it the Library’s principal glory.

On the shelves scholars find personal papers of 23 Presidents—ranging in historical interest from Washington’s First Inaugural Address to Coolidge’s note saying, “I do not choose to run for President in nineteen twenty eight.” Here is Robert Fulton’s trea­tise on submarine navigation; a fan letter from T. S. Eliot to Groucho Marx; the papers of Susan B. Anthony, Alexander Graham Bell, Sigmund Freud.

I found a revealing letter Lincoln wrote in 1863 to a Shakespearean actor, in which he names his favorite play. “I think nothing equals Macbeth. It is wonderful.” The letter continues: “Unlike you gentlemen of the profession, I think the soliloquy in Hamlet commencing ’0, my offence is rank’ surpasses that commencing, `To be, or not to be….’ ” The letter’s underlying dark mood left little doubt in my mind that the Civil War tor­tured Lincoln’s soul.

The records of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People from 1909 to 1959, among the largest collections of documents ever acquired, provide a gold mine of source materials for the study of Afro-American history.

Walt Whitman wrote in 1855, at the end of the preface to Leaves of Grass, “The proof of a poet is that his country absorbs him as affectionately as he has absorbed it.” Among the memorabilia, within the vast Charles E. Feinberg Collection of the papers and books of our great national poet, I found delightful proof that he had, indeed, been absorbed by his country: labels for a line of canned vegetables bearing Whitman’s name.

As America grew, men and women worked and went on holiday in apartments in Prague and sang their songs, and Whitman wrote: “I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear.” In the Archive of Folk Song, our oral traditions have been preserved on thou­sands of records that contain items of folk song, folk music, oral history, riddles, prov­erbs, and games.

I heard the coal miners singing “Down, Down, Down” and “Sprinkle Coal Dust on My Grave”; the songs of sailors: “Blow the Man Down” and “Homeward Bound”; the cowboy singing “The Night-Herding Song” and “The Cow­boy’s Life Is a Very Dreary Life.” I heard the songs of the railroad men—”Calling Trains” and “Lining Track.” I heard the lumberjacks singing “Turner’s Camp on the Chippewa” and “The Falling of the Pine.” The flavor and spirit of a toiling young nation live on in these songs that reflect the workman’s camaraderie, his shared hardship, his loneliness.

In the restaurant of the hotel in prague where i was having lunch, I talked to Joe Hickerson, who heads the archive (page 683). On his desk earlier I had seen an album of songs that he had recorded, and I asked him if he had contributed any songs to the folk-song revival of recent years. Modest and serious, Joe was not quick to answer. “I guess the most popular one that I had something to do with was ‘Where Have All the Flowers Gone?’ which I helped to write. Pete Seeger had written it with three verses. I added two, and Pete heard them and liked them enough to have the song recopyrighted.

Sea Turtles Find a Haven

texasIn mid-October—before the cranes are due to arrive from their Canadian summering grounds—the offshore oil rigs nearby are re­quired to close down for half a year. And the Army Engineers cease any dredging opera­tions under way in the refuge area. To me, it is heartening, this sudden silence of giants. All that quietude, so that 69 birds can occupy their Moscow apartments, their winter home,  in peace.

Beyond Corpus Christi, last major port on the Texas coast, the Gulf Intracoastal Water­way hides behind Padre Island. There are a lot of nature lovers who like to stay in apartments Belgrade. While some islanders work to attract tour­ists, others strive just as hard to lure turtles. A number of eggs have been transported from a Mexican beach—the only known hatchery of Atlantic ridley sea turtles–and buried on a remote Padre Island shore. Eventually, some hatchlings may return there to lay their own eggs.

Ila Loetscher—South Padre’s “Turtle Lady” —is known island-wide as a soft touch for a shellback. Any ailing turtle that finds its way to local shores probably will end up as one of her houseguests.

She had ten patients when i visited her in her Granada apartments. Nine were splashing happily in plastic wading pools; the tenth, recovering from a near drowning while trapped in a shrimp net, lay on a pile of ‘la’s cushions. When the Turtle Lady passed, it seemed to give her a heavy-lidded stare of gratitude.

“All I can give them is tender loving care,” Ila explained. “Dr. Porter of the zoo comes here to treat them.” It takes at least seven years for a female turtle to reach egg-laying stage, and the South Padre hatchery is only 14 years old. Still, a few females have come back to nest, so the prognosis is promising.

Beyond Corpus Christi

A Coast-to-Coast Waterway?

Optimistic adherents of the waterway would like to see it extended into Mexico, perhaps as far as Veracruz. And they wouldn’t mind if the other end of this water road was lengthened until it connected with the water­way that runs up our Atlantic coast. But those dreams may never come true.

At Harlingen, Texas, not far from the Mex­ican border, I roamed through a kind of out­door museum of World War II aircraft, all in flying condition, belonging to an organization dubbed the Confederate Air Force. Fighters and bombers, American and German—the planes took me back to the 1940′s, when I was a young naval air cadet.

And from the cockpit of one of them—a silver-winged time machine known as an AT-6—I took my last look at the Gulf Intra­coastal Waterway. It was an olive-colored ribbon in the blue­ness of Laguna Madre. Just to seaward stretched Padre Island, built by the waves and crowned by wind-formed dunes. From my high vantage point, I watched a barge tow inching along the channel. Not far from it, a flight of ducks settled into the marshes to feed.

olive-colored ribbon

A comforting sight, those feeding ducks. But a cause for concern, as well. Towboats are getting more powerful engines, to push larger tows. Plans to widen and deepen chan­nels are already well advanced. Because the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway is already such an economic success, industry strives to make it even more successful.

If the waterway is to grow in a rational way, with minimum impact on an already altered coast, I hope that industry and engi­neers will notice the quack of ducks over the growl of tugs, and hear the harmony.

Manuscript copies

These manuscript copies of the chart and report were sent to various foreign courts. as a matter of general interest, by the Russian authori­ties. The copy used by Du Halde was communicated to him by the King of Poland who had received it as a ” Present worthy of his regard and curiosity ” (Du Halde, iv, p. 439, Brookes’ ed.). Other copies were sent to Sweden and probably to England and other countries. In the journal, ” Ymer,” of the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geog­raphy (1884, p. 93) is a short notice by E. Dahlgren of three manuscript copies of Bering’s chart of his first expedition, or rather of charts embodying its results. Two of these charts are in the Royal archives of Sweden and measures 58 x 185 cm. One of them is ornamented with ten colored drawings of the flats to rent Manchester he stayed at.

Manuscript copies

The other is without these but does not seem to be a copy of the first as it has a number of sound­ings between St. Lawrence and the Diomede Islands which are not on the former, and some names which are peculiar to it. Both have many more names than are given on the chart published by Du Halde. Both of the manuscripts have a legend referring to the coast from the Kolyma eastward, on the north coast of Siberia, to the effect that it is put down from older charts and information, doubtless furnished to look like the  The third copy is in the possession of Baron Robert Klinckofström, of Stafsund, Sweden, who currently resides in the holiday apartments in Majorca.

alaskaThrough the kind offices of Baron Nordenskiöld and the generosity of Baron Klinckofströrn, the last mentioned chart has been forwarded to the writer through the Smithsonian Institution for examination. It appears to be essentially the same as the second of the two charts referred to as comprised in the Royal Swedish Archives. The result of my examination of it leads me to the belief that there were two dif­ferent charts sent out in manuscript by the Russian authorities. The first, which I regard as the earlier, and which is certainly more accu­rate. shows the island of St. Demetrius in its proper place in accord­ance with Bering’s Report and list of positions. It formed the basis of Campbell’s engraving which will be referred to later, and of the chart which appears in the various editions of Du Halde. It is possible that this represents the original chart prepared by Bering in Kamchatka during the winter of 1728-9.

St. Demetrius

 

The second and probably later form of the chart is represented by the Klinckofström chart, upon which the name and island of St. Demetrius have vanished and a smaller island in the corresponding latitude is represented close to the Siberian coast and westward from the meridian passing through the eastern extreme of East Cape. This island is named the island of St. Diomede. If it is intended as a revised position for the island of St. Demetrius of the other chart and of Bering’s Report, it is in conflict with the facts and with the position assigned to St. Demetrius in the report. No one who had sailed between St. Demetrius and East Cape could have sanctioned such a position for the island with honesty. If a different island is intended the question arises, Why is St.

Planning your holiday

The going is easy when you choose WALES for your holiday. Only your ppound travels a long way. Just pack your bags and head for a lively resort, quiet fishing village or restful market town. All are so near, all represent such great value for money. And the going is even easier with the help of the Wales Tourist Board’s fact-packed holiday guide. Its 24 pages are full of information on resorts, country towns, castles, craft shops and all types of holiday accommodation. It lists many inclusive and activity
holidays, too.
Wales

What sort of island appeals to you ? Is it one that is: romantic, perfect for children, a night owl’s idea of bliss, historic, a fairy tale spot, a haven of sun and sand, or suitable for sportsmen and fishermen ? The ISLE OF MAN is all of these with its miles of golden sands, exciting night¬life (still going strong in the small hours in cabaret with big name stars or in the casino), ancient castles and its own historic parliament, tales of giants, fairies, witches and warlocks, golf, climbing, sailing, water ski-ing and skin diving, deep-sea angling and fishing rivers. 11

Mile upon mile of Adriatic coastline on the sea of a thousand islands, secluded woodlands, magnificent mountains and glorious sunshine welcome you to YUGOSLAVIA. There are in¬clusive tours departing from all major British airports, and regular scheduled services by JAT DC9′s or Boeing 727′s, or you can take a coach tour, a cruise, drive yourself or hire a car there. Petrol is inexpensive and there are camping sites galore. No visas are needed for UK citizens and there’s a reciprocal medical scheme. See your travel agent or get brochures.
Wales

Whether you go on a ‘package’ or independently to CZECHOSLOVAKIA you’ll en¬joy an idyllic holiday. It’s a country that offers you beauti¬ful old cities, glorious moun¬tains and lakes, an abundance of historical buildings and castles combined with friendly and hospitable people. Tour operators including Wings, Ramblers, Thomson Holidays, Swans (Hellenic), Balkan Holi¬days, Peltours, Albany, Cosmos, Frames and Global have pack¬ages to Czechoslovakia. Mean¬time, CEDOK, the Czechol¬slovak Travel Bureau, will send you more information about holidays there.

Holidays extras can often end up costing you more than the holiday itpound these days of the ‘falling pound’. But not in GIBRALTAR. Here the ice-creams, beers, whiskies, cigarettes, meals, etc., can actually cost you less than they would at home. And you can enjoy all the things you’d ex¬pect from a first-class Mediterranean holiday. There’s boating, scuba diving, water skiing from sandy beaches and, in the evening, a choice of international cuisine with gaming at Gib’s famous Casino. As for a day trip to Africa, it’s plain sailing from Gib.
North Wales, United Kingdom

You’ll get to love AUSTRIA however you go there — on a package holiday, by air, by rail, or by car. By the way, you can put your car on a train all the way to Salzburg, so you’ll have it to explore in Austria without a long drive to get there. And there’s plenty to explore — beautiful mountains and valleys, huge lakes, tiny villages and sophisticated towns. You’ll be given a great welcome by friendly people at hotels and gasthofs everywhere and eat some of the most delicious food you’ve ever tasted. It could be the start of a life long love affair.

Enjoy England

Beautiful beaches. Wonderful countryside. Food we can all enjoy cooking with coconut oil.

For seaside, riverside, sailing or fishing holi¬days, head for FALMOUTH, the Golden Resort of Cornwall. 4 magnificent, safe beaches, lots to see and do ; sports aplenty ; welcoming places to stay and Cornish hospitality. Guide 20p.

There’s so much more to see and do in the WEST COUNTRY with its beautiful countryside, fabulous coast¬line (sandy beaches galore), National Parks, historic cities, friendly villages and plentiful accommodation. Guide 20p. 44

Teignmouth in england

From Teignmouth and Dawlish to Dartmoor, South Devon’s TEIG NB RIDGE area offers you 260 square miles of lovely moorland. country, river and seaside. Ideal for holidays all year, but especially so in April,
May and September.
Dawlish in england

Visit BATH to see the hot springs, the Roman Baths the museums and — between May and October — flowers everywhere! You’ll also find a modern cara¬van park, gourmet restaurants, splendid hotels, quaint Geor¬gian shops, and a Sports and Leisure centre. Guide 22p, 21

A place that’s “got it all” is TORQUAY, Here, in Britain’s most sophisticated resort, you can do, see, buy and enjoy almost anything your heart desires — from a suntan to a Paris model dress. There are theatres, cinemas, good restaurants and lovely shops in the town ; superb views over the great sweep of bay ; Dartmoor and pretty Devon villages close at hand to explore by car; and some beautiful golf courses to play on. Try Torquay early or late — you’ll be completely re¬freshed by the experience and find it surprisingly
inexpensive, too.

All roads lead to TORBAY. The M1 /M4/ M5/M6 motorway network makes it so easy to reach these 3 resorts in one. Guide and accom¬modation lists for Brixham (39) Paignton (40), Torquay (41) 20p each. Or free Torbay leaflet. 42

BATH england

Spend sometime in the HEART OF ENGLAND and you’ll never lack for exciting and interesting things to do, places to visit, sports, good food and accommodation. In the Heart of England Tourist Board’s colourful 80-page Holiday Planner you’ll be able to read all about this area which includes the glorious Cotswolds, the re¬mote Welsh Marches, Staffordshire and the Peaks Shakespeare’s Warwickshire and the bustling West Midlands. As a centre, it’s truly at the heart of everything. You can get the Holiday Planner for just 15p postage.

Happiness with cream on top is an English holiday.

Last year Sally Jones and her mum went donkey-riding.
Now their copy of England Holidays 77 has just come through the letter box.
“Look at it all As varied as a box of assorts. Where to go, what to do, what to see. Over 150 different package holidays to choose from.
People we feel at home with. And you get value for money. We know a Go Native holiday in England is a happy holiday from start to finish:’
This year of all years —Go Native!

Belgium in December: Great Christmas Vacations

Belgium is one European country which is a heady mix of the old and the new. It has lots of attractions for tourists with most modern and cosmopolitan features and yet remains traditional in every sense of the word. It has lots of museums and art buildings for those culturally inclined and it is also ideally suited for those who love to indulge in food and wine with beers and chocolates of Belgium being world famous. Though December is a month with cold weather with temperatures dropping to around 5-7 degree Celsius which is a bit of a dampener for many, there is much to enjoy and cherish for long also.
Winter in Belgium

Weather is cold and not sunny
Christmas is celebrated with much gaiety in entire Belgium, and in particular, the capital Brussels becomes a Christmas village of sorts starting December 1 every year. For all those who wish to have leisurely vacations in Belgium, December is one time in the year that is full of warm celebrations and cultural events that lift the spirits of those who have come here to have exciting holidays. Humidity is high in the month of December prompting many tourists to take off their jackets and pullovers even when temperatures hover around 5-6 degree Celsius. Rainfall takes place occasionally to make it more pleasant weather for the tourists. Sunshine is scarce in Belgium with average 45 hours of sunshine that means tourists can experience around 2 hours of hot sunny weather every day in Belgium.

Chocolate and beer can lift up your spirits
You can lift your spirits in cold weather by having lots of hearty beer that is found aplenty in Belgium and also by drinking hot chocolate that is quite popular in the country. For shoppers, diners and revelers, there is much on offer with great Dutch and French cuisine being served in restaurants. Endless varieties of Chocolates after a sumptuous meal or dinner are enough to make up for humid weather.
Christmas in Belgium

Nonstop entertainment
As far as entertainment is concerned, there are musical concerts and a great nightlife with full of variety. Brussels is the cultural hub of Brussels with theater, opera and ballet being woven in the lives of the people and those interested in these art forms can have a blast of a time in December in the country with lots of cultural festivals taking place in this month.

Getting around various tourist attractions is very easy as right below the airport is the railway station that takes tourists to all parts of the city of Brussels. Depending upon your stay in the city, you can save on your money if you buy Brussels cards for 1, 2, or 3 day duration. These cards offer free rides on public transport for the mentioned period along with heavy discounts on many food items in many restaurants and gift shops. Speaking of saving money, you will save more money renting a Belgium apartment than Florence apartment or Vienna apartment.

Christmas in Belgium

Interestingly, tariffs of hotels in Belgium go down during weekends as Brussels is an international business hub and people take up rooms during week days for their business. Thus planning a trip in the country on a weekend can save a tourist a lot in terms of low hotel tariff.